A Photo Galllery History of the War of 1812
NS USD 1812 Contributions to the Preservation of the History of the War of 1812
Some Significant Figures and Events of the War of 1812
President James Madison & the Proclamation of War
First Lady Dolley Madison &The Burning of Washington, DC
Francis Scott Key and the Star Spangled Banner
The Importance of the Flag and the National Anthem
Major General Andrew Jackson
The Battle of Pensacola and the Battle of New Orleans
The Treaty of Ghent
Andrew Jackson as President and Rachel, his Wife
Andrew Jackson on the Twenty Dollar Bill
Jackson's Firsts, Lasts, & Onlys
Some Contributions of the NS USD 1812
Mrs. Rueben Ross Holloway & the National Anthem
The Stained Glass Window at St. Michael's
NS USD 1812 Membership Certificates
What is so important about the " Forgotten War"?
The War of 1812 between the United States and Great Britain (1812-1815) was the war that gave the United States the identity that we know today. It gave the US distinct national symbols: "The Star Spangled Banner", Old Ironsides, "Don't Give Up the Ship", Andrew Jackson and New Orleans, Free Trade and Sailor's Rights. The War of 1812 has been unjustly overlooked as it stands in the shadows of the Civil War and Revolutionary War. It was, however, the making of not just one, but two nations--the United States and Canada.
In exploring this page and the Links to More History, we hope to increase your understanding of the tremendous significance of The Forgotten War. We will begin with President James Madison, the man who led the US into the War of 1812.
James Madison, The Father of the Constitution & The 4th US President, 1809 - 1817
James Madison (1751-1836), known as The Father of the Constitution, was one of the authors of the Federalist Papers and was influential in the construction and terms of the US Constitution. He served as Secretary of State under President Thomas Jefferson and oversaw the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. After being elected President in 1808, he led the country into the War of 1812 which became known as "Mr Madison's War".
After two terms in office, Madison left Washington, D.C., in 1817, and returned to Montpelier with his wife. Despite the challenges he encountered during his presidency, Madison was respected as a great thinker, communicator and statesman. He remained active in various civic causes, and in 1826 became rector of the University of Virginia, which was founded by his friend Thomas Jefferson. Madison died at Montpelier on June 28, 1836, at the age of 85.
Why did we go into another war with Britain?
Causes of the war included: British attempts to restrict U.S. trade, the Royal Navy’s impressment of American seamen and America’s desire to expand its territory.
New members of Congress elected that year, led by Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun, had begun to agitate for war, based on their indignation over British violations of maritime rights as well as Britain’s encouragement of Native American hostility against American expansion in the West.
The British, Canadians, and Native Americans, however, view the war quite differently than we do. The British viewed Madison's Declaration of War, issued June 19, 1812, with disbelief and betrayal in the beginning, and fury and resentment by the end. They also saw it as a pretext for annexing Canada. Click here for more on their view: The British View of the War.
The United States suffered many costly defeats at the hands of British, Canadian and Native American troops over the course of the War of 1812, including the capture and burning of the nation’s capital, Washington, D.C., in August 1814. Nonetheless, American troops were able to repulse British invasions in New York, Baltimore and New Orleans, boosting national confidence and fostering a new spirit of patriotism. Please click here for a Timeline for Major Events of the War.
James & Dolly Madison were the First "Power Couple"
In 1794, after a brief courtship, the 43-year-old Madison married 26-year-old Dolley Payne Todd (1768-1849), a gregarious Quaker widow with one son. Dolley’s personality contrasted sharply with that of the quiet, reserved Madison. She loved entertaining and hosted many receptions and dinner parties during which Madison could meet other influential figures of his time. During the couple’s 41-year marriage, they were rarely apart.
Dolley Payne Todd Madison, First Lady of the US, 1809 - 1817
Dolley Madison was the first spouse of a President to be addressed as First Lady, and this led to her name The First First Lady. In August 1814, when the British were burning Washington, DC, Dolley insisted on remaining to supervise the evacuation of important documents, silver, and art, including the famous portrait of George Washington by Gilbert Stuart, and according to some even protected the Declaration of Independence.
Do You Know? Where did the President & First Lady live after the White House was burned?
In 1814, Colonel Tayloe offered the use of his home to President and Mrs. Madison for a temporary "Executive Mansion" after the burning of the White House by the British. Madison, who used the circular room above the entrance of the "Octagon House" as a study, signed the Treaty of Ghent there, which ended the War of 1812.
For fifty years, Dolley was the most important woman in the social circles of America and she remains one of the best known and best loved of First Ladies. She was a woman of beauty and fashion known for her turbans and dresses and she became a legendary heroine in the 19th and 20th centuries. The images below include the 1807 portrait of Dolley, painted by Gilbert Stuart, Dolley in her turbans and elegant clothes, and a photograph of her taken by Matthew Brady in 1848, only one year before she died. We can actually see the real Dolley! Please click for a larger view and to view the photos as a slideshow.
Upon her husband's death in 1836 in Virginia, she returned to Washington, D.C. residing on Lafayette Square where she retained a place in Washington society and was granted a lifelong seat on the floor of the House of Representatives. She died at the age of 81 in 1849 and was interred in a brick receiving vault at the Congressional Cemetery in Washington DC. She was, however, removed in 1852 and placed in the private vault of her niece, and moved again in 1858 to the Madison family graveyard at Montpelier and interred behind her husband's monument.
Dolley became a pop culture image beginning in the late 19th century with "the colonial revival" movement. Advertisers used her image to sell watches, nylon stockings, powder and rouge. After all, Dolley Madison furnished the White House after it was burned and she was the American heroine who had stood up to the British in the War of 1812! To find out more about Dolley and pop culture, see The Dolley Madison Project.
Francis Scott Key
After 25 hours of continuous bombing of Fort McHenry in Baltimore Harbor (September 14-15,1814), the British decided to leave since they were unable to destroy the fort. Realizing that the British had ceased the attack, Francis Scott Key looked toward the fort to see if the flag "was still there". To his great relief, it was still flying and he was inspired to write the song that became our National Anthem over one hundred years later.
During the 19th century, “The Star-Spangled Banner” became one of the nation’s best-loved patriotic songs. It gained special significance during the Civil War, a time when many Americans turned to music to express their feelings for the flag and the ideals and values it represented. By the 1890's, the military had adopted the song for ceremonial purposes, requiring it to be played at the raising and lowering of the colors. Despite its widespread popularity, The Star-Spangled Banner did not become the National Anthem until 1931.
What is the Significance of a National Anthem?
A National Anthem is one of the most important aspects of a country's independent status. The purpose of a National Anthem is to instill patriotism, nationalism, and a common bond with one's fellow countrymen at a time of need. The time of need can range anywhere from a sporting event, to a need for national mobilization, to a call for war. It is the umbrella under which a country or group can rally and be proud.
One of the most common themes among the world's national anthems is the theme of war which encompasses the struggles of revolution and rebellion. These anthems often retell an account of a battle in which men succeeded against all odds to emerge as victorious against an oppressive evil. When this story is told over and over again it reminds people of how their nation came to be and how they should be proud to be who they are.
Did you know?
The effort to make The Star-Spangled Banner the official National Anthem of the United States began with the United States Daughters of 1812
In 1918, Mrs. Reuben Ross Holloway, a member of the National Society United States Daughters of 1812 and president of the Maryland State Society, led a campaign to make The Star-Spangled Banner the official National Anthem of the United States. Finally, on March 3, 1931, President Hoover signed it into law and the song officially became the US National Anthem. To see the full lyrics and to learn about the origins of the melody, please click here. "The Star Spangled Banner".
Have you ever wondered what kind of rockets the British were firing in Baltimore Harbor? They were 3.5 inches in diameter, weighed 32 pounds, and carried seven pounds of incendiary mixture. Click here to learn more The Rockets with the Red Glare.
The original Star-Spangled Banner, the flag that inspired Francis Scott Key to write the song that would become our national anthem, is among the most treasured artifacts in the collections of the Smithsonian’s National Museum of American History in Washington, DC. Facts from the Smithsonian about the Original Flag and the 1812 War
The 1812 Flag had 15 stars and 15 stripes and was the only U.S. flag to have fifteen stripes. The 15 star flag flew over Fort McHenry in September 1814 and inspired the writing of the the Star Spangled Banner. This flag flew from 4 July, 1795 to 4 July, 1818 even though five more states would join the Union during that time. The 20 Star Flag became the official United States Flag on April 13th, 1818. Five stars were added for the admission of Tennessee, Ohio, Louisiana, Indiana, and Mississippi.
Realizing that the addition of a new star and new stripe for each new State was impractical, the United States Congress passed the Flag Act of 1818 which returned the flag design to 13 stripes, to represent the original 13 colonies, and specified 20 stars for the 20 states that were in the Union, at the time. One star for each new state would be added on the 4th of July following the state's admission to the union.
At the bottom of this page, you will find a list of the 18 states which were in the Union at the time of the war and an image of the 1812 Flag as it looked when newly made.
The Original Star Spangled Banner
Why is a Flag Important?
A flag is not just a symbol, but a way for a country to portray itself to the rest of the world. It symbolizes the unchanging characteristics of a nation and it is honored for what it represents. Flags are held in high esteem for their history, for the sacrifices made by the people, and for the qualities for which the country and people stand. American flags are given so much respect because citizens of the United States equate the flag with the country they love. Click here to learn more about Flags and Their Importance.
A flag often gains the same respect as was accorded to the person or thing which it represented. In battle the loss of a flag is a severe blow and the capture of the opponents flag might be the turning point in a battle. Flags often bear religious symbols, and are used in religious as well as state occasions.
Respect for the flag is one indication of patriotism. Public dishonoring of the flag is regarded as an extreme form of dissent in most countries. To fly the national flag is a sign of pride and patriotism. Many consider it a civic duty and a positive affirmation of loyalty and commitment. It marks out a country that has confidence in itself, and is comfortable with its place in the world, its history and its future. (copy from New Zealand Flag Institute.)
About Andrew Jackson (1767-1845)
Tall and lanky with red hair and piercing blue eyes, Jackson was known for his fiery temper, fearlessness, playful personality and daring spirit. While living in North Carolina, Jackson gained a reputation for being charismatic, wild and ambitious. He loved to dance, entertain, gamble and spend his free time with friends in taverns. Click her to learn about Jackson's Life Before the Presidency.
Did You Know?
Jackson was passionate about horses and horse racing. As a young lawyer he became famous as the leading breeder and owner of thoroughbreds in his native state of Tennessee. In the early 19th century, horse racing was the leading sport in the country. Jackson was part-owner of Clover Bottom, a track near his home, and he trained his horses there, including a horse named Thruxton, his prized Virginia born racehorse. It was a disagreement over Thruxton that led him to a duel with Charles Dickinson in 1806.
Although it has been said that Jackson fought hundreds of duels, this is the only one which actually resulted in shots fired. Dickinson fired first, hitting Jackson in the chest. Jackson stood firm, and without anyone even knowing he had been shot, he raised his arm and shot Dickinson in the chest. Dickinson bled to death.
Jackson's doctors were afraid that they would kill him by trying to remove the bullet. With the wound never completely healing and causing Jackson chronic pain, the bullet remained lodged near his heart for the rest of his life. The lead from this bullet (and a later one Jackson took in his arm) was the primary cause of his death--lead poisoning--at the age of 78. Jackson would have been suffering constant pain from the bullet during the war, and indeed for the rest of his life. Click here to learn more about Andrew's Racehorse and the Duel with Dickinson.
Major General Andrew Jackson, Hero of the War of 1812
As a general, Andrew Jackson made quick, decisive actions to take the War of 1812 into his own hands, even if his troops were the underdogs. In November 1814, General Jackson learned of a rumored invasion of the South through either New Orleans or Mobile. He acted quickly to repair the defenses at Mobile and, with questionable authority to do so, invaded portions of Spanish Florida in order to eliminate threats from British forces and Native Americans hostile to the United States. Jackson then led his infantry into a pivotal battle--The Battle of Pensacola--against British and Spanish forces controlling the city of Pensacola in Spanish Florida. Creek Native Americans were also allied with the British.
After an hour of hard fighting and dismayed by the ferocity of the American attack, the British fled to their ships and Jackson totally cowed the Spanish and the Creeks. The British abandoned the city and it was surrendered to Jackson by the Spanish. The Spanish governor, who had previously written sneering letters to Jackson, was soon signing himself ‘Your most faithful and grateful servant, who kisses your hand". Word of the redcoats’ flight quickly spread through the southwest, giving new confidence to militiamen from Baton Rouge to Nashville .More about Jackson can be found at: Andrew Jackson, Hero of the War of 1812.
The battle is considered pivotal because by taking Pensacola, Jackson handicapped the British. They had planned to take Mobile, and eventually take New Orleans, but now they had to rush to New Orleans, however, Jackson beat them there and had plenty of time to build up the defenses. Historians say that "taking Pensacola won the War of 1812".
A few weeks later, British forces mobilized for what they hoped would be the campaign’s finishing blow--The Battle of New Orleans. They chose that city because it was a vital seaport considered the gateway to the United States’ newly purchased territory in the West (the Louisiana Purchase). If they could seize the city, the British Empire would gain control over the Mississippi River and the trade of the entire American South.
On December 1, 1814, Jackson entered New Orleans to strengthen its defenses and amass a truly unique American Army. Regular U.S. troops, volunteer militia from Tennessee, Kentucky, Louisiana and the Mississippi Territory, free blacks, Creoles, Native Americans and even a band of pirates comprised Jackson’s new force; however, Jackson’s army was greatly outnumbered and inexperienced compared to the superior British troops that threatened New Orleans.
General Andrew Jackson at the Battles of Pensacola & New Orleans
On January 8, 1815, the British began a full-scale attack on Jackson and the defenders of New Orleans. The assault on Jackson's fortifications at New Orleans was a fiasco for the British. In a span of 30 minutes, they had 2,000 casualties , including three generals and seven colonels while Jackson's ragtag army lost 71 men. To the amazement of the world, Jackson’s army handed the British attackers a crushing defeat that forced them to withdraw from Louisiana. This unexpected victory led to an enormous sense of national pride and made Jackson the new American hero.
The stunned British army lingered in Louisiana for the next several days, but its remaining officers knew that any chance of taking the city had slipped through their fingers. Click here for the video "Miracle on the Mississippi - The Battle of New Orleans" to learn more about the battle that shocked the world and the only American General who could have succeeded.
A Lithograph of the Battle of New Orleans
Jackson’s string of military success, despite the obstacles he faced, the poor results of other military leaders during the War of 1812, and his stunning victory at New Orleans made him a celebrated national hero, revered above all others except George Washington. Shortly before the British withdrawal, Andrew Jackson reentered New Orleans to the sounds of “Yankee Doodle” and a public celebration. Newspapers in the beleaguered city of Washington, DC. labeled him the national savior. The festivities continued the following month, as news of the Treaty of Ghent reached American shores.
Future President James Monroe would later praise the General by saying, “History records no example of so glorious a victory obtained with so little bloodshed on the part of the victorious.” Some historians have said that no other American General could have succeeded in this battle. His toughness and determination are the character traits which led to him being called Old Hickory.
And, who remembers the hit song The Battle of New Orleans released in 1959 and sung by Johnny Horton? Click onto the site to view all the verses and to hear Horton sing the song which won the 1960 Grammy Award for Best Country and Western.
The first verse and chorus:
In 1814 we took a little trip
Along with Colonel Jackson down the mighty Mississip
We took a little bacon and we took a little beans
And we caught the bloody British in the town of New Orleans
We fired our guns and the British kept a-comin'
There wasn't nigh as many as there was a while ago
We fired once more and they began to runnin'
On down the Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico
And the 3rd verse:
Ole Hickory said we could take 'em by surprise
If we didn't fire our muskets till we looked 'em in the eyes
We held our fire till we seed their faces well
Then we opened up our squirrel guns and gave 'em
For Major General Andrew Jackson, Fighting the British was a Personal Affair
Did you know?
When the American Revolution broke out, Jackson and his two brothers were eager to fight the British. Jackson's mother had told her sons stories of the battle for freedom in their native Ireland, including how Jackson's grandfather had fought against the British in Ireland. After the British invasion of the western Carolinas in 1780-1781, Andrew's brothers (his father was already deceased), and then Andrew joined the militia where he served as a courier, however, Andrew and one of his brothers was captured.
While being held captive, a British officer demanded that Andrew clean the mud from his boots. The thirteen year old Andrew refused, replying, "Sir, I am a prisoner of war and claim to be treated as such." The soldier angrily raised his sword and swung at the boy's head. Jackson managed to deflect part of the blow with his left hand, but he received a serious gash on his hand and another on his head. Undeterred, Andrew continued to refuse to shine the officer's boots!
The young boy was left with two scars that he would bear for the rest of his life. By the end of the war his brothers and mother had died--his mother from cholera while tending to sick and injured soldiers, among whom were her nephews. By the age of 15, Jackson was an orphan and a veteran of the Revolution and the deaths of his family members led to a lifelong hatred of the British.
Depiction of the Signing of the Treaty of Ghent in Ghent, Belgium
The Treaty of Ghent, signed on December 24, 1814, in the city of Ghent, Belgium was the peace treaty that ended the War of 1812 between the United States and the United Kingdom. The treaty restored the borders to the lines before the war started in June 1812, and it began two centuries of peaceful relations between the U.S. and Britain.
Approved by the UK parliament and signed into law by the Prince Regent (the future King George IV) on December 30, 1814. It was not fully in effect, however, until it was ratified by the U.S. Senate unanimously on February 17, 1815. A month passed before news of the peace treaty reached the United States which explains why the fighting continued in New Orleans, which began December 24, 1814 and ended on January 8, 1815, 22 days after the treaty was signed.
It wasn’t a clear victory or defeat for either side. What the United States did gain was a sense of pride. The new nation that took on the world’s greatest military power had stood its ground. Symbols of patriotism — the flag and “The Star-Spangled Banner” — became hugely popular. America wasn’t yet the land where everyone was free, but it had shown the world that it was indeed the home of the brave. (from The Forgotten War.)
Soon the country was calling for Jackson to be President
From 1812 to 1821, Jackson’s military career made him a national hero and brought him increased wealth and opportunities. He had astounded the country with his sharp strategy in battle since he was a "common man" with no formal military training. For the United States, Jackson’s actions secured its southern lands, acquired millions of acres for settlement that fueled the cotton boom, and gave Americans a newfound confidence or “go ahead” spirit that began an expansion in agriculture and manufacturing. Soon, Jackson’s countrymen would introduce him as a candidate for President of the United States.
Andrew Jackson, President 1829 - 1837
Andrew Jackson (1767-1845) was born into poverty on March 15,1767, three weeks after his father died suddenly at the age of 26. The exact location of his birth is uncertain, but it was in the Waxhaws region on the border of North and South Carolina. Both states have claimed him as a native son but Jackson himself maintained he was from South Carolina. The son of Irish immigrants, Jackson received little formal schooling, however he was a voracious reader and read law in his late teens and earned admission to the North Carolina bar in 1787. After earning his law degree he moved to Tennessee where he prospered in his law practice, married Rachel Donelson Robards Jackson (1767-1829) and bought a plantation near Nashville which he called the Hermitage. They had no children of their own but adopted several, including Rachel's nephew, and named him Andrew Jackson, Jr.
From the beginning, Andrew and Rachel's marriage was a perfect love match. The couple were deeply devoted to each other and remained so throughout their lives. Rachel died of a heart attack in December 1829, only three months prior to his Presidential inauguration in March, 1830. On Christmas Eve, she was buried in the garden at Hermitage--in the white dress and shoes she had purchased to wear to her husband's inauguration. Andrew blamed her death on the stress of vicious attacks on her character during his run for the presidency. He wrote her epitaph, "A being so gentle and so virtuous slander might wound, but could not dishonor".
The portrait above is a miniature on ivory which was worn by Andrew, over his heart, after her death. The other photos are of the Hermitage and their burial sites in the Garden Tomb on the estate.
Andrew Jackson is regarded as one of the most influential US presidents in history, as well as one of the most aggressive and controversial. He founded the Democratic Party, supported individual liberty and instituted policies that resulted in the mass migration of Native Americans. He also strengthened the power of the presidency, defended the Union, and gained new respect for the United States in foreign affairs. Jackson pushed the country toward democracy, doing what he could for the common man, which led to his name "The People's President".
Did You Know?
Jackson helped to inspire a uniquely American sense of promise and hope; the idea that anyone can succeed through hard work and natural ability, rather than through unearned power and privilege. Jackson was different than anyone who had ever served as president. He made executive decisions based on his personal beliefs and did what he could to protect the common man.
The city of Philadelphia gave President Andrew Jackson a white stallion in 1833. The President, a noted horseman since his youth, named him Sam Patch, after one of America’s first celebrities. That first Sam Patch became a household name in 1829 after he leapt into the Niagara River near the base of Niagara Falls. The presidential portrait below shows him astride the white horse. Patch and Jackson's racehorse, Thruxton, were taken to the White House while he was President.
After leaving office, Jackson retired to the Hermitage. At the age of 78, just months before his death, the sickly president sat for Mathew Brady, whom he denounced for making him “look like a monkey.” Jackson was sickly throughout his term too, prompting concerns that he might die prematurely. Despite suffering from chronic headaches, abdominal pains, and a severe hacking cough, caused by a musket ball in his lung from a duel in 1806 (his coughs often brought up blood and sometimes even made his whole body shake), he served two full terms, and retired far more popular than he was when he entered.
Photograph taken in 1845 by Matthew Brady
Jackson is visibly ill in this photograph. The scars from the sword slash he took from the British officer when he was a boy can be seen above his lip. He died on June 8, 1845, at the age of 78, from tuberculosis and lead poisoning caused by the bullet that had remained in his chest for years. He was buried in the plantation's garden next to his beloved Rachel. His last words to his grand-children and his servants, as quoted by The National Preacher (1845) were, "Oh, do not cry. Be good children, and we shall all meet in Heaven … I want to meet you all, white and black, in Heaven."
Andrew Jackson is still awash in a storm of controversy. His life is full of contradiction, much like the country he helped build. One of his earliest biographers called him a "democratic autocrat” and “an atrocious saint.” Every generation of historians has reshaped and revised our understanding of Jackson and will continue to do so. The reason is simple; Andrew Jackson is inextricably woven into the fabric of America--"no man has left a deeper mark on American History". (from Andrew Jackson' Legacy)
Andrew Jackson, the 7th US President, has been featured on the front side of the $20 bill since 1928 when he replaced President Garfield. The White House is featured on the reverse side.
The twenty-dollar bill in the past was referred to as a "double-sawbuck" because it is twice the value of a ten-dollar bill, which was nicknamed a "sawbuck" due to the resemblance the Roman numeral for ten (X) bears to the legs of a sawbuck. This usage had largely fallen out of favor by the 1980s.
As of December 2013, the average circulation life of a $20 bill is 7.9 years before it is replaced due to wear. Approximately 11% of all notes printed in 2009 were $20 bills. After almost 100 years of having Jackson's image on the bill, a new design will replace him in 2020.
President Jackson has appeared on other US Currency
Please click onto the above images for a slidehow and to make them appear larger.
Andrew Jackson Firsts, Lasts & Onlys
- First president to be a resident of a state other than Massachusetts or Virginia
- First Tennessee representative to the U.S. House
- First president to ride a train
- First president to be assaulted while in office
- First president to be the target of an assassination attempt
- First president born to immigrant parents
- Last president to serve in the Revolutionary War (he participated at age 13!)
- Only president to have been held as a prisoner of war
- Only president to raise a Native American child—Lyncoya, who was found orphaned after the Battle of Tallushatchee (1813)
- Only president to serve in both the American Revolution and the War of 1812
- Only president to pay off the national debt
At the White House
- First president to add running water to the White House
- First president to install indoor toilets at the White House
- Jackson was largely self-taught. He read widely from the Bible, the classics, and dozens of daily and weekly newspapers.
- Jackson did not free any of his slaves.
- Jackson was only the second president to be photographed.
- While he was in office, some farmers gave Jackson a 1,400-pound wheel of cheese. He invited all comers to help themselves and, for weeks after, the White House reeked of cheese.
- Jackson’s pet parrot, Poll, attended his funeral service, but had to be removed after he started cursing at the mourners.
National Society US Daughters Honors our Patriot Ancestors
The Stained Glass Window at St. Michael and All Angel's Church in Dartmoor, England, near Dartmoor Prison
More than a century ago, the National Society of United States Daughters of 1812 donated this beautiful stained-glass East Window to St. Michael and All Angel's Church, the only church in England built by American prisoners. The window depicts scenes from the Passion of Christ. The Society donated it as a tribute to the American prisoners of war who died in captivity at Dartmoor prison, and to preserve the memory of those who fought in the war. Two hundred and seventy one American soldiers are buried nearby, some in the church cemetery and others behind the prison.
The first prisoners were Frenchmen from the war Britain was fighting with Napolean. French prisoners began arriving 22nd May, 1809, and in April 1813 American prisoners began arriving. The prison was overcrowded and had terrible conditions. Outbreaks of diseases – pneumonia, typhoid, smallpox, etc. killed more than 11,000 Frenchmen and 271 Americans. Their graveyards and memorials are at the rear of the prison. The wars finally ended and the prisoners were repatriated, however very few survived the conditions at the prison. The prison then closed until opening again as a penal establishment for criminals in 1850.
The NS USD 1812 Membership Certificate depicts that window. In 2015, the Society held a national contest for the most beautifully framed certificate and three South Carolina members were among the winners--one for 2nd place and two (in blue) tied to be in the top ten.
Did you know?
During the War of 1812 there were 18 states in the Union even though there were only 15 stars on the Flag. The 18 states and the dates statehood was granted by the U.S. Congress were:
Delaware - December 7, 1787
Pennsylvania - December 12, 1787
New Jersey - December 18, 1787
Georgia - January 2, 1788
Connecticut - January 9, 1788
Massachusetts - February 6, 1788
Maryland - April 25, 1788
South Carolina - April 23, 1788
New Hampshire - June 21, 1788
Virginia - June 25, 1788
New York - July 26, 1788
North Carolina - November 21, 1789
Rhode Island - May 29, 1790
Vermont - March 4, 1791
Kentucky - June 1, 1792
Tennessee - June 1, 1796
Ohio - March 1, 1803
Louisiana - April 30, 1812
The 1812 Flag